FORWARD project

In Europe, annual growth of aquaculture has declined to 1%, partly because of market factors, but also because the industry is subject to stringent regulation and sustainable development is a major consideration. Recent environmental legislation, such as the European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EC) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; 2008/56/EC) has implicitly promoted the three objectives of the Ecosystem Approach to Aquaculture (EAA), namely (i) human wellbeing; (ii) ecological well-being; and (iii) multisectorial integration.

In 2008, within the environmental protection and landscape enhancement context, the Portuguese Council of Ministers Resolution published a diploma for the development of an integrated and coordinated coastal areas policies.

A set of operations for the improvement and valuation of the risk areas and the degraded natural areas on the coast was developed under the “Programa Polis Litoral” - Integrated Operations of Requalification and Enhancement of Coastal Zone.